Naissance des divinités, naissance de l’agriculture : La révolution des symboles au néolithique PDF

Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating c. Archaeological remains are located in the Levantine and Upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. The time period is characterized by tiny circular mud brick dwellings, the cultivation of crops, the naissance des divinités, naissance de l’agriculture : La révolution des symboles au néolithique PDF of wild game, and unique burial customs in which bodies were buried below the floors of dwellings.

Après une longue période au cours de laquelle le mode de subsistance de l’homme repose avant tout sur la chasse et la cueillette, un tournant décisif de son histoire est marqué par l’avènement des premières sociétés villageoises sédentarisées puis l’apparition de l’agriculture et de l’élevage, deux modes de production nouveaux qui s’imposeront comme les fondements de nos sociétés modernes. Cette mutation, que l’on a appelée la Révolution néolithique, apparaît pour la première fois au Proche-Orient. Si c’est bien dans cette Révolution néolithique que s’enracinent nos modes de vie et de production actuels, c’est sur la nature et les causes de ce changement majeur que s’interroge l’auteur. Les modèles économistes, qui ont toujours fait de la production de subsistance une réponse à des pressions imposées par des contraintes extérieures (démographie, climat…), sont abandonnés au profit d’une véritable mutation culturelle, la Révolution des symboles, qui anticiperait ce moment crucial de notre histoire.

During this time, pottery was not yet in use. PPNA archaeological sites are much larger than those of the preceding Natufian hunter-gatherer culture, and contain traces of communal structures, such as the famous Tower of Jericho. PPNA settlements are characterized by round, semi-subterranean houses with stone foundations and terrazzo-floors. 3,000 people, and was protected by a massive stone wall and tower. There is much debate over the function of the wall, for there is no evidence of any serious warfare at this time. One possibility is the wall was built to protect the salt resources of Jericho.

Kenyon found no fewer than 279 burials, below floors, under household foundations, and in between walls. The lithic industry is based on blades struck from regular cores. Sedentism of this time allowed for the cultivation of local grains, such as barley and wild oats, and for storage in granaries. This period of cultivation is considered « pre-domestication », but may have begun to develop plant species into the domesticated forms they are today. Deliberate, extended-period storage was made possible by the use of « suspended floors for air circulation and protection from rodents ». This practice « precedes the emergence of domestication and large-scale sedentary communities by at least 1,000 years ».

Granaries are positioned in places between other buildings early on c. BP, however, beginning around 10,500 BP, they were moved inside houses, and by 9,500 BP storage occurred in special rooms. This change might reflect changing systems of ownership and property as granaries shifted from a communal use and ownership to become under the control of households or individuals. It has been observed of these granaries that their « sophisticated storage systems with subfloor ventilation are a precocious development that precedes the emergence of almost all of the other elements of the Near Eastern Neolithic package—domestication, large scale sedentary communities, and the entrenchment of some degree of social differentiation ». Sultanian in the Jordan River valley and southern Levant, with the type site of Jericho. Mureybetian in the Northern Levant, defined by the finds from Mureybet IIIA, IIIB, typical: Helwan points, sickle-blades with base amenagée or short stem and terminal retouch. Other sites include Sheyk Hasan and Jerf el-Ahmar.